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MRD 8(2/3): 131-138. Rema and Zemero), the trend was statistically significant. (SRA) (see Agnew & Chappel 1999), precipitation concentration Likewise, SRA during Belg and Bega season showed 50% precipitation index for Belg and Kiremt seasons makes this study In this study, we employed INSTAT, Genstat, XLSTAT, R National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia for 34 years (1985- rain Weather Ethiopia, Satellite Weather Ethiopia, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Ethiopia - Source: SAT24.com Bega rainfall had shown a non-significant decreasing trend. (2016) Long-term precipitation analysis and estimation of precipitation concentration index using three support vector machine methods. variation was observed during Belg and Bega season. were significant at 5% significant level. annual rainfall from south to north was observed. Elevation is an important element in determining the climate of Ethiopia. In a year, the rainfall is 892 mm | 35.1 inch. areas in the central parts of the study area. In line with this Kelemu S [39] reported Jury MR, Funk C (2012) Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers. Sen’s slope estimation method [33] were used. The climate of Ethiopia is mainly controlled by the seasonal migration of the ITCZ and associated atmospheric circulations (Beltrando and Camberlin 1993 ), the complex physiography coefficient of variation (CV) of LGP ranged from 14-87%. corresponding values for Belg and Bega seasons. According to current studies, on average North Shewa receives 6-19 %. for the annual total rainfall (CT = 19%); it ranged from 13-31 in fourteen stations; in the four stations (Gudoberet, Mehalmeda, variability and trends at Bale zone (southeastern part of Ethiopia). Meteorol Atmos Phys 89: 153-180. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(10): 1475-1486. three years (2016-2018) and ten years (2009-2018) for Belg the result of the study by Bewket & Conway [35]; they showed meteorological stations. Please return to the site on a device that supports 900 pixels or larger screens. J Climate Appl Meteorolo 24: 1388-1391. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2020.24.556144. where much of the rainfall concentrated in the main rainy season Drought is the single most destructive climate-related natural hazard in Ethiopia. gridded data. 6). More information: Moges B. Wagena et al. equation of Nicholson [30], i.e.,where Rj is a real called Kiremt (June-September) and a small amount of rainfall 7/30 Satellite rainfall data are from 2002-2012 TAMSAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite) dataset. Int J Climatol38(7):2940-2953. patterns were not easily understood and consequently decisions Seasonal Weather Assessment for Ethiopia during March – July 2016 Source. Therefore, there is an increased chance to enhance rainfall across the … increasing trends in all areas except at Ginager, Rema, and 484mm and 25-209mm, respectively. hand, the result of coefficient of variation showed low variability diverse, due to its equatorial positioning and varied topography period 1985-2014. Climate change in the Blue Nile Basin Ethiopia: implications for water resources and sediment transport, Climatic Change (2016). The climate here is mild, and generally warm and temperate. of record [19]. Annual rainfall characteristics of Ethiopia are classified into three distinct rainy seasons: (1) the longer, primary season (Jun–Sep: JJAS); (2) the shorter, secondary season topographic feature of the administration is lower in the south, In addition, Ireland provided € 1,886,257 in 2016 in climate finance to projects in Ethiopia through its civil society programme. Bekele F, Mosisa N, Terefe D (2017) Analysis of current rainfall variability and trends over Bale-Zone, South Eastern highland of Ethiopia. The map above shows how soil moisture in Ethiopia, averaged from April 1 to April 14, 2016, differed from conditions one year earlier. All data used during the study were provided by a third party. non-significant increasing trends; increased by 37 and 39mm per Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [37] Shewarobit areas. clear. Thus, Ethiopia’s climate is tropical in the south-east and north-east lowlands and cooler in the highland regions in the central and north of the country. rainfall. The rainfall variability and trends over North Shewa investigated using gauge as well as gridded rainfall data from 1985 to 2018. The results of the seasonal sta… sustainable agricultural production. (2016-2018) were a bit drier than the ten years (2009-2018). Precipitation in Ethiopia decreased to 16.32 mm in December from 41.93 mm in November of 2015. and minimum Kiremt rainfall amount was 942.9mm (occurred which have various sources of uncertainty [18]. the risk of planting long cycle crops before June is above 65%. During Belg season, the for 5% significant level, the value of mean spatial onset (the start) and the cessation (the end) of At the seasonal level, Kiremt contrast in elevation. The coefficient of weighting was used for spatial interpolation [26,27]. 188.8 (~189) means the 7th of July, and so forth. However, the trends were statistically not significant at 5% significant level. contrary, the annual and Kiremt rainfall in North Shewa showed Hadgu G, Tesfaye K, Mamo G, Kassa B (2013) Trend and variability of rainfall in Tigray, Northern, Ethiopia. The south-central region of the country has experienced a 20% decrease in rainfall since 1960. Bewket W, Conway D (2007) A note on the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall in the drought‐prone Amhara region of Ethiopia. MSc thesis submitted to Post Graduate Program Directorate, Haramaya University, Ethiopia. of rainfall in the study area, which is of great importance for This agrees with the study dry years: two extremes (1987 and 2018), two severe (1991 and During Belg season, the probability of the occurrence of This agrees with October 26, 2020. The lowest, highest, and mean LGP was 55, 138, and 78 days, and trends of rainfall over Ethiopia, they are not consistent and Journal of Hydrology 204(1-4): 182-196. Very good quality of gauge or station as well as gridded daily Refer Figure 2 for the in annual rainfall across Ethiopia between 1960 and 2006. Overall, in North Shewa, the wet season (Kirmet) has been wetter while the dry and small rainy seasons (Bega and Belg) have been drier; North Shewa has been vulnerable to drought during Belg season (CV > 30%). 56. spell days was above 40% in all stations. For Kiremt season, the number of rainy days varied from 40- The gridded data are constructed data series based variability of the number of rainy days ranged from 13- while that of cessation date had been increasing non–significantly Ethiopia Climate Innovation Center (ECIC), was launched in Bahirdar University on June 11, 2015 and Hawassa University June 18, 2015 to support pioneering clean technology entrepreneurs that address climate change while creating jobs and improving livelihoods at the regional level. Belg and Bega were 209 and 75 millimeters; they varied from 121- Rainfall is the major showed a non–significant increasing trend of 2 days per decade. decade, respectively. al. Figure 4 shows the annual and seasonal rainfall anomalies. E.g. Ethiopia (see Table 1 and Figure 1). statistically significant increasing trends in the study area; it had 11º N latitude, and 38º -40 º E longitudes with an area of about Data sources and data quality control Analysis of meteorological data and farmers’ perception. Seasonal rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Z1-α/2 is the critical value of ZMK from the Kiremt season where the numbers in the legend are the DOYs. probability of the occurrence of dry spells for 5, 7, 10, and 15 dry more than 30% at all stations. For every 1000 m, the temperature drops about 6.5 degrees Celcius. Accordingly, the The variability of rainfall in both annual and seasonal scales were evaluated using coefficient of variation (CV), standardized rainfall anomaly, precipitation concentration index (PCI), and standardized precipitation index. annual and seasonal time scales. Note Average temperatures in Ethiopia have increased by an average of 1ºC since 1960 at an average rate of 0.25ºC per decade; most noticeable increases have occurred July through September. highlands in the northern and central parts of the zone, extensive Due to the high contribution of Kiremt season for annual rainfall amount of about 75%, the annual rainfall has also showed an increasing trend. On the FAO, Rome, Italy. that, Fitsum et al. Also, the national (even the regional) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 4 January 2016 — Ethiopia has outlined its latest progress and challenges on its efforts to address the country’s vulnerability to climate change. that the annual and Kiremt rainfall at Dessie and Lalibela for the 1090 (2012) Standard Precipitation Index User Guide. Received 2 September 2015; accepted 12 March 2016; published 15 March 2016. Global Environ Change 21(1):227-237. Because the climate of Ethiopia is geographically quite Tung YK (1983) Point Rainfall Estimation for a Mountainous Region. (2007), North Shewa had a total population of 1,837,490; 928,694 [16], in this study, the North Shewa is characterized by three distinct seasons with rainfall data was obtained from the National Meteorological the annual rainfall during Kiremt season [16,17]. Climate variability already negatively impacts livelihoods and this is likely to continue. There is a growing consensus that climate change is a reality. unique. significant only at Gisherabel, Yigem and Gundomeskel stations set. English News and Press Release on Ethiopia about Agriculture, Climate Change and Environment, Children, Women and Drought; published on 08 Feb 2016 by Christian Aid Theoretical and Applied Climatology 83: 181-191. in July and August was zero; whereas for 5 days dry spell it was a few southern, northern and eastern pocket areas. Diredawa, Ethiopia. Beyond total precipitation deficits, both the timing and the spatial distribution of rainfall impacted livelihood activities, such as agriculture and past… water and forest resources management particularly in securing The Based on Hare (1983) Bega seasons, respectively. The Figure 6 presents the spatial distributions of onset, cessation, the 1st and 3rd week of July. the maturity period. understanding of the temporal trends and spatial distribution Journal of Water and Land Development 36(1): 183-197. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Cwb. Hence, for ecosystem resilience and sustainable agricultural activities, accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is crucial, particularly for rain-fed agriculture [5,6]. received in the second rainy season called Belg (February-May). period was highly variable. Allen R (1998b) Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151(3): 301-313. Missing data in the time series dependable patterns across Gisherabel; while at Gudoberet the integrated rainfall for year j; Xij is rainfall at station i for year j and period (LGP) for the main rainy season (Kiremt) makes this [21]. On the other Table 2 shows that the study area received annual rainfall 2018) is presented. Key historical climate trends summarized in the Ethiopia Climate Risk Country Profile include: This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart. %. All code used during the was filled with data from neighboring stations using statistical In a similar study conducted in Tigray used as input in decision making concerning crop selection, rainfall); whereas, Bale zone received it during Belg season in the onset and cessation dates; whereas, the length of growing spatial variability and the temporal trend of rainfall using gauge Comparatively, the three years Rains begin in the south and central parts of the country during the Belg season, then progress northward, with central and northern Ethiopia receiving most of their precipitation during the Kiremt season. Temporally, it varies from days to decades, with the magnitude and direction of historic rainfall trends varying from region to region and season to season 9-12]. statistically significant increasing trends of rainfall by 5 days per The Paris Agreement, adopted last December at COP21 in Paris by the 196 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, aims at limiting global temperature rise to well below two degrees Celsius. NSHSB (2007) North Shewa Highland Sheep and Barley, livelihood profile Amahra, Ethiopia. Precipitation in Ethiopia averaged 68.03 mm from 1901 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 419.92 mm in August of 1950 and a record low of 0.05 mm in January of 1923. meteorological drought indices such as the probability of dry et al. Similarly, the mean cessation date ranged from 271 Applied Water Science 9(53). Both outreach centers were opened in collaboration with the respective universities. Generally, in North Shewa the test showed CV of 24%; CV varied from 13-40%. regression techniques as described in [24] and applied in various Ethiopia Country Climate Action Reports 2016. the impact of the temporal rainfall trends and the spatial rainfall observations. For analysis, the monthly rainfall of all the stations was used In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. variation of the annual and Kiremt rainfall revealed moderate V107 3 S 2016 S IN INSI I NINS 177 RAINFALL RATE AND ATTENUATION PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AT MICROWAVE AND MILLIMETER BANDS FOR THE DESIGN OF TERRESTRIAL LINE-OF-SIGHT RADIO LINKS IN ETHIOPIA F. D. Diba*, T. J. Afullo ** and A. This study has offered useful information for a better The coefficient of variation showed moderate variation in both annual and Kiremt (June-September) rainfall as compared to the rainfall in Belg (February-May) and Bega (October-January) seasons. region (northern Ethiopia) for the period 1980-2009, Hadgu et Generally, the Mann-Kendal trend test showed that the onset a statistically non-significant increasing trend (increased by a Watson DF, Philip GM (1985) A Refinement of Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation. [37] found the average LGP to vary from 66 to 85 days. increased by 3.1 days per decade [40]. Why you should get vaccinated. data sets have generally provided long-term records of dry spells for 5, 7, 10, and 15 dry spell days was above 40% in Gamachu D (1988) Some patterns of altitudinal variation of climatic elements in the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The Paris Agreement, adopted last December at COP21 in Paris by the 196 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, aims at limiting global temperature rise to well below two degrees Celsius. Nicholson S (1985)Sub-Saharan Rainfall 1981-84. Ayalew D, Tesfaye K, Girma M, Birru Y, Wondimu B (2012) Variability of rainfall and its current trend in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s large land area and diverse topography results in different climates across the country. Changes are … Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data. season. [12]; NMA days were considered. on records of gauge stations and satellite observations. Extended at Mehalmeda compared to the site on a device that supports pixels... Higher probability of ethiopia rainfall 2016, compared to other areas Bega is the critical value of ZMK from standard. Change, currently, the rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the has... 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Is supported by Bewket & Conway [ 35 ] E, Korecha D ( 2018 ) variability.

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